Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antiviral Drug Effectiveness in COVID-19 Therapy: A Data-Driven Retrospective Approach

Yulia, Rika and Ikasanti, Putri Ayu Irma and Herawati, Fauna and Hartono, Ruddy and Hanum, Puri Safitri and Lestiono, Lestiono and Ramdani, Dewi and Jaelani, Abdul Kadir and Kantono, Kevin and Wijono, Heru (2022) Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antiviral Drug Effectiveness in COVID-19 Therapy: A Data-Driven Retrospective Approach. Pathophysiology, 29 (1). pp. 92-105. ISSN 1873-149X

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Official URL / DOI: https://www.mdpi.com/1873-149X/29/1/9/htm


The clinical manifestations associated with COVID-19 disease is mainly due to a dysregulated host response related to the overexpression of inflammatory markers. Until recently, only remdesivir had gained FDA approval for COVID-19 hospitalized patients and there are currently no evidence-based therapeutic options or options for prevention of complications that have been established. Some medical treatments such as antivirals, antibacterials, antithrombotics, antipyretics, corticosteroids, interleukin inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, immunostimulants, and vitamin supplements have been utilized. However, there are limited data to support their effectiveness. Hence, this study was attempted to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of antibacterials and antivirals used for COVID-19 using a retrospective cross-sectional approach based on the medical records of adult patients in four hospitals. The number of antibacterials was calculated in defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 bed-days unit. Both mixed-logit regression and analysis of covariance were used to determine the effectiveness of the aforementioned agents in relation to COVID-19 outcome and patients’ length of stay. The model was weighed accordingly and covariates (e.g., age) were considered in the model. Heart disease was found to be the most common pre-existing condition of COVID-19 hospitalized patients in this study. Azithromycin, an antibacterial in the Watch category list, was used extensively (33–65 DDD per 100 bed-days). Oseltamivir, an antiviral approved by the FDA for influenza was the most prescribed antiviral. In addition, favipiravir was found to be a significant factor in improving patients’ COVID-19 outcomes and decreasing their length of stay. This study strongly suggests that COVID-19 patients’ received polypharmacy for their treatment. However, most of the drugs used did not reach statistical significance in improving the patients’ condition or decreasing the length of stay. Further studies to support drug use are needed.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: defined daily dose; COVID-19; antibacterials; antivirals; SARS-CoV-2
Subjects: R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: Faculty of Pharmacy > Department of Pharmacy
Depositing User: Ester Sri W. 196039
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2022 09:05
Last Modified: 08 Mar 2022 09:05
URI: http://repository.ubaya.ac.id/id/eprint/41492

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